Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Design Of A PV-Diesel Hybrid System

Plan Of A PV-Diesel Hybrid System Plan Of A PV-Diesel Hybrid System And Its Comparison With Grid Connected System In Pakistan 1. Task Background And Introduction Presentation The task regarding this postulation is to structure a PV Diesel half and half framework and to contrast it and as of now existed lattice associated framework. This framework is intended for a Jamia Masjid (Islamic focus) in Pakpattan, Pakistan. The specific site of the task is a province of Pakpattan which is in the south-west of the city Pakpattan. The Pakpattan city is arranged around 161 Km south west to Lahore. The atmosphere and climate information is practically same for Lahore and Pakpattan. Moreover it will be first task of its own tendency around there and it will assist with structuring the frameworks for the local locations by which a typical individual can get benefits and dispose of intensity disappointments. Pakistan is situated between scope 24 and 37 degrees North and longitude 62 and 75 degrees East. Pakistan has Afghanistan in the north-west, Iran on west visitor, India is on the east, China in the north and the Arabian Sea is on the south. Pakistan is ageographical focal point of the Asian Continent since it assembles a kind of extension between Far East and Middle East; additionally it has a mainland sort of atmosphere which can be portrayed by extraordinary varieties of temperature. For the most part the atmosphere of Pakistan is dry, implies high temperature in summer and low temperatures in winter. High elevations change the atmosphere in the freezing northern mountains which are secured with day off. There is little precipitation. There are a few contrasts exist particularly in different areas, for example the beach front line along Arabian Sea is for the most part under warm conditions, though the Karakoram mountain range and some different piles of far north are so cool, totally solidified and secured with snow that these are just obvious and open by some universal world-class climbers for a few months of May and June of every year. The variety of day by day temperature could be 11 0C to 17 0C however in winters the base mean temperature is around 4 0C in January. Pakistan has enormous recourses of vitality however sadly because of botch out of 170 million populace only 65-70% approaches power. Request is more than flexibly of vitality to private and mechanical part. As of now Pakistan is confronting 3000 MW of intensity stockpiling and it is normal that in year 2010 the interest will surpass flexibly by 5500 MW. The flow force and power request and flexibly hole shows that there is a major need to builds the current force age limit in Pakistan. Point Of The Thesis The principle point of the task is to clarify the structure period of a solitary home PV framework. The methodology and subtleties of the structure are given bit by bit. There are primary after points which should be satisfied by this theory. a) To experience and get the center information on the structuring procedure. b) To get acquainted with various devices utilized for planning and make determination between them. c) Beyond from scholarly information, become more acquainted with some genuine and down to earth parts of various PV frameworks and activities. The body and structure of the proposition is for the most part isolated into four stages. a) Calculation of the essential burden for this particular task with the assistance of PVSYST adaptation 4 b) Division of the heap to PV and Diesel Generator as indicated by limit conditions and structure boundaries. c) Economical and specialized look on as of now existed framework associated framework. d) Comparative investigation between this recently structure framework and right now existed network associated framework as far as financial aspects, accessibility and life time World Energy Situation There are various components which impact and assume a significant job in the utilization, request and accessibility of vitality, for instance the utilization by singular client and business is being expanded, regular developing populace and new government arrangements are a portion of these elements. However, the petroleum derivatives are modest. There are two parts of the petroleum products, first is their accessibility and second is those unsafe ecological effects which show up in the wake of utilizing and consuming of these non-renewable energy sources. It is similarly destructive for the current ages just as for people in the future. In any case, with the progression of time an ever increasing number of individuals and governments are getting mindfulness about these effects. The current vitality request projections can be seen from the raw numbers gave by World Energy Administration (EIA) â€Å"The absolute world vitality utilization increments from 472 quadrillion Btu in 2006 to 552 quadrillion Btu in 2015 and 678 quadrillion Btu in 2030â€a complete increment of 44 percent over the projection period† Sustainable power source Situation Of The World At the point when the primary Renewable Global Status Report was distributed in 2004, numerous markers have demonstrated sensational increases. Over the most recent four years from the finish of 2004 to the furthest limit of 2008, sun based photovoltaic limit expanded multiple times which is more than 16 gigawatts (GW). Wind power limit has been expanded 250 percent to 121 GW; the all out force limit from new sustainable recourses has been expanded 75 percent to 280 GW which remembers critical increases for little geothermal, hydro, and biomass power age. During a similar timeframe, sun based warming limit become twofold to 145 gigawatts-warm, while the biodiesel creation has been likewise expanded multiple times to 12 billion liters for each year and ethanol creation multiplied to 67 billion liters for every year. The yearly rate gain for the year 2008 was additionally astounding and progressively sensational. The development in Wind vitality was 29% and matrix associated sun powered PV by 70%. The limit of utility scale PV plants additionally expanded during this period. Sun powered heated water frameworks likewise developed by 15%. All around the globe the legislatures are changing the arrangements about the future vitality emergencies and vitality markets and strategy. In this race the United States of America turned into the pioneer and contributed $24 billion for new limit which is 20% of the absolute worldwide venture. The United States is likewise driving in including the absolute breeze vitality limit and furthermore outperformed Germany who was a breeze power pioneer for quite a while. Spain has included around 2.6 GW of sun powered PV, which is a full 50% of matrix associated establishments all around the worldwide and multiple times increment over Spains 2007 augmentations. China has multiplied its ability to deliver wind vitality and now positioned at fourth spot all around the globe. Another critical and significant achievement was that the European Union and the USA added greater ability to create power from inexhaustible recourses than from traditional vitality sources (as gas, oil, coal and atomic) and it occurred just because. The ventures of Renewable vitality blasted for the most part during 2008. Worldwide sunlight based PV creation was expanded by 90% to 6.9 GW in 2008. Vitality Profile Of Pakistan The vitality profile of Pakistan is deficient and there are in every case deficits of vitality (power) particularly during summer. Pakistan needs around 14,000 to 15,000 MW power ordinarily to meet all private and modern requests. Be that as it may, Pakistan can deliver around 11,500 MW, so it implies there is around 3000 MW to 4000 MW deficiency. This setback was experienced widely and on its pinnacle this year and influencing industry, trade and day by day life. During this year the deficiency for power in country zones was around 12 to 16 hours and in urban regions it was around 8 to 12 hours. The explanations behind this insufficiency are restricted petroleum product assets, frail economy and fumble of the accessible vitality sources. There are some business wellsprings of vitality accessible in Pakistan, they are: Hydro vitality; Atomic vitality; Oil and gas; Ordinary powers like rural squanders, creature fertilizer and wood fuel. Here, it is a diagram of essential vitality supplies in Pakistan in MTOE (TOE: ton of oil proportionate. It is a vitality unit which is equivalent to the vitality of consuming of 1 ton of unrefined petroleum which is around 42 GJ) From fig 1.3 unmistakably vitality flexibly of Pakistan is profoundly subject to Oil and Gas. Both Oil and Gas contribute over 79% of absolute essential vitality provided. Different wellsprings of vitality like hydro-power, coal, atomic power and imported power contribute about 21% of the all out offer. As vitality is basic for a wide range of creation forms. Pakistan has been developing in rural and modern segment during a decade ago and that is the reason vitality request is being expanded. As populace and industry is developing, the day by day request will increment up to 20,000 MW in 2010. Pakistan meets around 75% of its vitality needs by oil, gas and hydro power creation. Flammable gas has assumed a significant job to meet the vitality needs as of late. Be that as it may, Pakistan needs to extend its vitality asset on perpetual bases. So as to conquer this vitality deficiency, Pakistan needs to grow and build up its indigenous vitality assets, for example, hydropower, wind and sun powered vitality. Pakistan is one of the most noteworthy sun powered protection territories of the world. Presently we will quickly talk about the principle vitality sources in Pakistan. Petroleum gas After the autonomy of Pakistan in 1952 Sui petroleum gas field assets in Baluchistan were found first time. The creation at Sui began in 1955 and was on its top in 1985. It was the most gainful gas field of Pakistan in mid 1990s. In FY 1993 it was bookkeeping 46% of creation. After that the second biggest gas field was found which is additionally situated in Baluchistan at Mari, which was contributing 20% of all creation. All out 25 gas fields were completely operational in FY 1993. The estimation of recoverable flammable gas saves were evaluated around 662.0 billion cubic meters, with an extraction rate around 14.0 billion cubic meters. So as to fulfill the expanding need of vitality and for future arranging, endeavors from government are being made to build the creation of

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Sobeit and So Be It

Sobeit as Be It Sobeit as Be It Sobeit as Be It By Maeve Maddox Jean composes: Would you be able to do a component on so be it and sobeit? Â I thought without a doubt it was constantly composed as three words until a conversation on a court correspondents message barricade came about an editor saying that it ought to be a single word. Sobeit is a word as be it is a statement. Nor is highly utilized in normal discussion or composing, however legitimate language will in general be on the good old side. The condition so be it is a subjunctive articulation significance let it be so. Model: Aladdin: I need a colossal royal residence with a thousand workers and a pool. Genie: So be it! Sobeit can be utilized as combination or as a thing. As a combination sobeit implies gave that, if. Model: I will complete this 800-page novel, sobeit I live long enough. Sobeit can likewise be utilized as a thing, as in this model from the OED: Thou answerest me an houre after..like to a Sexton with a Sobeit or Amen. Regardless of whether to spell it as single word or work it out as three words relies on the specific situation. Need to improve your English in a short time a day? Get a membership and begin getting our composing tips and activities every day! Continue learning! Peruse the Vocabulary class, check our mainstream posts, or pick a related post below:Farther versus FurtherTry to versus Attempt and30 Nautical Expressions

Wednesday, August 5, 2020

Selection Day 2

Selection Day 2 With a difficult day and a half of selection behind me, Im looking forward to watching The Incredibles tonight and not thinking about Admissions (and taking off the tie that I wore today!). In a nutshell, heres how selection works. Weve spent a month reading and crafting great summaries of your applications, and now we take those summaries and work from them. We do selection in subcommittees, usually of three people Ive been lucky enough to work so far with Stu, Quinton, Salvador (the admissions officer formerly known as Juan), and Amy, making for great subcommittee dynamics. Each subcommittee will take each case in random order, read aloud the summary, check out the coursework and grades, and then have a discussion about that applicant. Things are by consensus we have everyone on the subcommittee agree what the right action (admit, defer, deny) is. Because we have a clear idea of what we are looking for in MIT students (if youve come to an information session or read MyMIT, you know what I mean), we can usually reach consensus after a bit of discussion without needing to resort to a formal vote. In the very rare occasion where we cant reach consensus, we put the appl ication back in the stack for another subcommittee to decide on. Then we take the next case and repeat the above, iterated over all of the different subcommittees, which are intentionally randomized each half day or so. We will definitely continue working tomorrow and probably Monday, too, though its too early to tell. After we finish with selection, theres still a lot of administrative stuff to do before we can put the decision letters in the mail. We mail all of the letters together in the same batch; we hope to mail by Saturday, though, again, its too early to know exactly when well be done and ready to mail. And again, you will have to wait to get your letter in the mail to find out your decision, as it will not be online, in email, or available on the phone. Im happy to report that this years early applicants are excellent, and its been very difficult choosing which students to admit since everyone is so talented. Thank you for your hard work on your applications; I promise you were responding in kind with hard work on the selection process.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Analysis Of Songs Of Rebellion - 1682 Words

Matthew Caruso Beverly Mitchell Arts Culture II April 6, 2017 Songs of Rebellion Smashing anything from pumpkins to instruments, Rock Roll is a form of art with flare. Generations of people from the 50’s to modern day have enjoyed a little bit of rebellion in their life. But while the rebels continue to rage against the machine of society, that society is constantly changing. Different issues become highlighted and more relevant as others fall to the wayside, but Rock music does not stand by jovially. With constant adapting and innovating, Rock Roll always finds something to scream about. The history of Rock begins around the 50’s, right off the cusp of World War II. The oppressed youths of America wanted something to represent†¦show more content†¦By the end of the decade, however Rock was taken over by big business, and what used to be a provocative sound turned into songs about teen-appropriate issues such as school, parents, young love, etc. By the end of the 50’s and beginning of the 60’s rock had som ewhat died down and become tamer. many thought it was dead until the mid 60’s. Rock Roll had a resurgence, known as â€Å"The British Invasion†. While things had settled down in the US, England had been inspired. Groups from Britain like the Rolling Stones and the Beatles brought a fresh style, infusing British Rhythm and Blues and Jazz into what they played. This revival propelled the genre down two different paths. Many groups came onto the scene and continued to make more of the same teen-appropriate pop-style music. others pushed boundaries in an industry heavily influenced by drugs, spawning the phrase, â€Å"Sex, Drugs, and Rock Roll†. The Beatles were at the center of it all, experimenting with different sounds and instruments. Their experimentations became part of a larger movement, known as psychedelic rock, which included the likes of Jimi Hendrix and Pink Floyd. Pink Floyd was one of the first bands to use laser lights in their concerts. Whatâ€℠¢s more psychedelic than that? Hendrix even took it a step further, creating what many call Acid Rock. Additionally, the Beatles were not just trendsetters with their music, but also with fashion, sporting hair that was abnormally long for men at theShow MoreRelatedA Reflection Of A Protest Song I Have Chosen J Coles1406 Words   |  6 PagesFor this critical reflection of a protest song I have chosen J Coles â€Å"Be Free†. Through his music and lyrics, J Cole is constantly pushing a political agenda, questioning society and its norms as well as putting a focus on current and past events. There are multiple reasons why I chose this song and genre. Since the Watts riots in California there has not been a large-scale African American rights protest. Blues started off the musical African American protest wave and it seemed to end with theRead MoreImpact of Music on Culture Essay960 Words   |  4 PagesThe musical meaning of the songs of the era is vital to an understandin g of the social implications of the music. On a primitive level, the lyrics of a song give some insight into its musical meaning. Often, however, the lyrics paint an incomplete picture of a song’s true social significance. By studying other factors, such as the instruments, the melody, and the artists themselves, one can gain much more insight into a song’s musical meaning. Through this analysis, common themes of sex, drugsRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Animal Farm By George Orwell1405 Words   |  6 PagesLiterary analysis of Animal Farm The rebellion was to escape from people and their cruel ways, but can they escape the death-grip of their own kind? The animals of animal farms are mistreated and have no rights. Mr and Mrs. Jones were the owners of Manor Farm, the human oppressors, and authoritarians of the animals. The animals rebel against the Jones and take over the farm. They create a utopian society for themselves, but the utopia quickly turns into a dystopia when the pigs take control ofRead MoreMovie Analysis : Sleigh Bells V Demi Lovato Essay1564 Words   |  7 PagesLovato, et al. (2016), was instigated when the band known as Sleigh Bells tweeted in November 2015 that Demi Lovato’s new song, â€Å"Stars†, had stolen content from two of their songs â€Å"Infinity Guitars† and â€Å"Riot Rhythm†(Mcir.usc.edu InPlay). Demi Lovato and her team quickly countered this claim, arguing that none of Sleigh Bells’ songs had been used during the making of their new song. The tweet , in the following August, turned into a lawsuit from Sleigh Bells, against Demi, for copyright infringementRead More Rock n Roll 20th Century Culture Essay1465 Words   |  6 Pagesand Dylan defined the emotions of a generation and, in the last decade, it as even been acknowledged by members of the establishment which it hoped to change as a major influence in the country. In order to understand how rock went from a sign of rebellion to a cultural icon, it is necessary to understand where it came from. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;According to Albert Murray, the African-American musical tradition is â€Å"fundamentally stoical yet affirmative in spirit† (Star 3). Through the mediumRead MoreThe Tyger By William Blake Essay969 Words   |  4 PagesAmerican poet, William Blake. This poem has many interpretation, in a way you could say it is a biblical as well as a symbolic poem, as ‘The Tyger’ is actually the contrast to one of Blake s other poem, The Lamb, both poems are from the book of â€Å"Songs of Innocence and Experience†. If you are familiar with the Christian Bible, it states â€Å"Jesus is the Lamb of God.† The Tyger is comprised of unanswered questions as to who could have created a terrifying creature, a tiger. As if the lamb representedRead MoreShort Analyses of Some of the Best American Literature872 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿American Literature in Context Introduction The following analysis of these works of literature will focus on to what extents these works are representative of the time in which they were write. This refers to the social as well as the artistic or aesthetic context in which they were written. The paper will attempt to show how these works reflect the age and concerns in which they were written. 1. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: The Yellow Wallpaper. This story which was first published in 1892Read MoreRace As A System Of White Supremacy936 Words   |  4 Pagessuperiority. However, while the two concepts are indeed intrinsically linked, the order of the relationship is often misunderstood. One did not beget the other; in fact, the two concepts arose simultaneously in the late 1600s, following Bacon’s Rebellion. If one examines the history of race in America, one will find that our idea of race has its roots in the ruthless capitalist pragmatism of the elite, with white supremacy simply serving as an effective means to an end. In Colonial Virginia, theRead MoreThe Entertainment of the Media over the Ages1020 Words   |  4 Pageslistener. It’s no debate that the music we listen to today is most definitely not the music the generation our grandparents or even our parents listened to. The song â€Å"American Pie† by Don McLean, which released in 1971, is one of the most analyzed songs in American pop culture history (Shuck). Standing as a story all on its own, a simple analysis of the lyrics reveals allusions and metaphors in abundance. Analyzing these allusions and metaphors exposes many rhetorical devices used by McLean. A culturalRead More African Diaspora Essay1641 Words   |  7 Pagesstudy. The evidence from South Carolina, Louisiana and Surinam supports the second and third arguments much more than the first. The third argument, that of cultural transformation, is the argument I find to be most valid. John Thorntons analysis of this issue is extremely helpful. He addresses the no connections arguments in chapters 6, 7 and 8. He outlines the claims made by scholars Franklin Frazier, Stanley Elkins, Sidney Mintz and Richard Price. Frazier and Mintz believe that

Monday, May 11, 2020

Early Puberty Puberty, Consumerism / Complex Shift, Peer...

Thesis A major concern that has crept up on our nation, is children maturing at a rapid pace. Parents like me, are able to experience this it first-hand. In order to understand why our children are blossoming at an accelerated rate, we must examine the sources of the issue. In the following I will expand on four main reasons that I believe are the reasons for children developing earlier; early puberty, consumerism/complex shift, peer pressure, and technology. Early Puberty Early puberty has been observed more in young ladies than in young gentlemen. The typical age of a girl beginning puberty has declined. In the early 1900s girl started their periods between the ages of fourteen and fifteen. A little over one hundred years later,†¦show more content†¦When girls go through puberty their bodies transform, both inside and out. Girls tend to gain weight, a bust, begin to have body odor, body hair, and start the menstrual cycle. These girls are going through these changes before everyone else their age and are subjected to ridicule. Insults about being overweight, or having a large chest can really harm a young girls mental image of herself. Getting questioned about smelling bad, or the reason they have feminine hygiene products in their locker, can be tough questions for a tween to face on their own. There is this pressure to be the like as everyone else, and when they do not fit the status quo, they can get made a spectacle. Technology Technological advances have placed technology into the hands of our children at an unexpectedly young age. For some reasons, such as education, technology can be a good thing. those children who use technology for this purpose can have incredible advantages over their peers. These toys, games and television shows are meant to have adult supervision and age restrictions. However, there are two sides to every coin, and by allowing children unlimited time with technology is where it can cause issues. For example, your eleven-year-old child has a television in their bedroom. You do not give them any instructions as to what they are permitted to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The History of Schizophrenia Free Essays

string(71) " schizophrenia an order of magnitude higher than the general populace\." The History of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with symptoms of emotional instability, detachment from reality, and withdrawal into the self. The word â€Å"Schizophrenia† is less than 100 years old. However the disease was first identified as a discrete mental illness by Dr. We will write a custom essay sample on The History of Schizophrenia or any similar topic only for you Order Now Emile Kraepelin in the 1887 and the illness itself is generally believed to have accompanied mankind throughout its history. There are documents that identify Schizophrenia can be traced to the old Pharaonic Egypt, as far back as the second millennium before Christ. Depression, dementia, as well as thought disturbances that are typical in schizophrenia are described in detail in the Book of Hearts. The Heart and the mind seem to have been synonymous in ancient Egypt. The physical illnesses were regarded as symptoms of the heart and the uterus and originating from the blood vessels or from purulence, fecal matter, a poison or demons. Some recent study into the ancient Greek and Roman literature showed that although the general population probably had an awareness of psychotic disorders, there was no condition that would meet the modern diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia in these societies. At one point in history, all people who were considered â€Å"abnormal,† whether due to mental illness, mental retardation, or physical deformities, were largely treated the same. Early theories supposed that mental disorders were caused by evil possession of the body, and the appropriate treatment was then exorcising these demons, through various means, ranging from innocuous treatments, such as exposing the patient to certain types of music, to dangerous and sometimes deadly means, such as releasing the evil spirits by drilling holes in the patient’s skull. One of the first to classify the mental disorders into different categories was the German physician, Dr. Emile Kraepelin. He used the term â€Å"dementia praecox† for individuals who had symptoms that we now associate with schizophrenia. The nonspecific concept of madness has been around for many thousands of years and schizophrenia was only classified as a distinct mental disorder by Kraepelin in 1887. He was the first to make a distinction in the psychotic disorders between what he called dementia praecox and manic depression. Kraepelin believed that dementia praecox was primarily a disease of the brain, and particularly a form of dementia. Kraepelin named the disorder ‘dementia praecox’ (early dementia) to distinguish it from other forms of dementia (such as Alzheimer’s disease) which typically occur late in life. He used this term because his studies focused on young adults with dementia. The Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler, coined the term, â€Å"schizophrenia† in 1911. He was also the first to describe the symptoms as â€Å"positive† or â€Å"negative. † Bleuler changed the name to schizophrenia as it was obvious that Krapelin’s name was misleading as the illness was not a dementia (it did not always lead to mental deterioration) and could sometimes occur late as well as early in life. The word â€Å"schizophrenia† comes from the Greek roots schizo (split) and phrene (mind) to describe the fragmented thinking of people with the disorder. His term was not meant to convey the idea of split or multiple personality, a common misunderstanding by the public at large. Since Bleuler’s time, the definition of schizophrenia has continued to change, as scientists attempt to more accurately delineate the different types of mental diseases. Without knowing the exact causes of these diseases, scientists can only base their classifications on the observation that some symptoms tend to occur together. Both Bleuler and Kraepelin subdivided schizophrenia into categories, based on prominent symptoms and prognoses. Over the years, those working in this field have continued to attempt to classify types of schizophrenia. Five types were delineated in the DSM-III: disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, residual, and undifferentiated. The first three categories were originally proposed by Kraepelin. These classifications, while still employed in DSM-IV, have not shown to be helpful in predicting outcome of the disorder, and the types are not reliably diagnosed. Many researchers are using other systems to classify types of the disorder, based on the preponderance of â€Å"positive† verses â€Å"negative† symptoms, the progression of the disorder in terms of type and severity of symptoms over time, and the co-occurrence of other mental disorders and syndromes. It is hoped that differentiating types of schizophrenia based on clinical symptoms will help to determine different etiologies or causes of the disorder. The evidence that schizophrenia is a biologically-based disease of the brain has accumulated rapidly during the past two decades. Recently this evidence has been also been supported with dynamic brain imaging systems that show very precisely the wave of tissue destruction that takes place in the brain that is suffering from schizophrenia. The 1800’s saw a slow progression towards an eventual schizophrenia definition. From the 1800’s on, schizophrenia history begins to gain ground as researchers began to understand the nature of the disease: Although the nineteenth century saw great strides towards a schizophrenic definition, â€Å"lunatic asylums† of the time were often little more than human zoos. For a fee, well to do ladies and gentlemen could tour the asylums, viewing the patients. No doubt the psychotic behavior of schizophrenics made them popular â€Å"attractions† during these degrading tours. Schizophrenia in Recent Times The start of the twentieth century saw, for the first time in schizophrenia history, a practical schizophrenia definition and the birth of effective treatments. In 1911 Eugene Beuler first used the term schizophrenia, and his schizophrenia definition includes symptoms such as blunted emotions, disordered thoughts, and loss of awareness. Then in 1957, Kurt Schneider created the schizophrenic definition still in use today, and is the first person in the long history of schizophrenia to list the currently accepted features of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia definitely has a very significant genetic component. Those who have a third degree relative with schizophrenia are twice as likely to develop schizophrenia as those in the general population. Those with a second degree relative have a several-fold higher incidence of schizophrenia than the general population, and first degree relatives have an incidence of schizophrenia an order of magnitude higher than the general populace. You read "The History of Schizophrenia" in category "Papers" The History of Schizophrenia Treatment in the Twentieth Century Schizophrenia history abounds in unusual treatments and bizarre â€Å"cures. † Indeed, the twentieth century stands apart from the rest of schizophrenia history because it saw the first effective schizophrenia treatment: the first antipsychotic drug was created in 1952. The twentieth century also saw some controversial schizophrenia â€Å"cures. † Portuguese doctor, Egus Moniz, developed the lobotomy in the 1930s. Moniz won a Nobel Peace prize for his work in 1949. The lobotomy procedure cut the nerve fibers from the frontal lobe to the interior of the brain, where emotions are generated. Patients were less agitated and aggressive after a lobotomy. Of course, patients were also left indifferent and with blunted emotions, but this didn’t squelch the lobotomy’s popularity as a schizophrenia treatment. Patients could be released from hospitals after lobotomies, saving both hospitals and family members money. Lobotomy procedures varied. American neurologist John Freeman created perhaps the most bizarre procedure. Freeman traveled America performing lobotomies for the benefit of audiences comprised of journalists and medical professionals: to call him a medical showman isn’t stretching the truth much. Freeman’s lobotomies were simple, quick, and medically preposterous. With the patient under anesthesia, Freeman placed an ice pick (yes, you read that correctly) into an area just above the eyeball. Using a hammer, he drove the ice pick into the patient’s brain to a depth of approximately one inch. Lobotomies fell into disfavor as people noticed patients often died from lobotomy-induced epilepsy or surgical infections. Severe brain damage was also shown in many cases (not that it should have required a study to prove an ice pick to the brain caused extensive damage). Still, between the 1940s and the 1950s over 40,000 Americans were lobotomized. Shock therapy was developed at the same time lobotomies were darkening schizophrenia history. Approaches to shock therapy varied. Some doctors used insulin injections; others preferred Metrazol or electricity. Insulin often left patients in comas. Both Metrazol and electricity caused seizures, and electric shock therapy often caused memory loss. Surprisingly, electroconvulsive therapy is still used to treat some cases of schizophrenia and severe depression. Current techniques are supposed to be much safer, but many medical professionals consider electroconvulsive therapy very dangerous, and something that should only be used as a last resort. Since schizophrenia may not be a single condition and its causes are not yet known, current treatment methods are based on both clinical research and experience. These approaches are chosen on the basis of their ability to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia and to lessen the chances that symptoms will return. Medications For Schizophrenia: Antipsychotic medications have been available since the mid-1950s. They have greatly improved the outlook for individual patients. These medications reduce the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia and usually allow the patient to function more effectively and appropriately. Antipsychotic drugs are the best treatment now available, but they do not â€Å"cure† schizophrenia or ensure that there will be no further psychotic episodes. The choice and dosage of medication can be made only by a qualified physician who is well trained in the medical treatment of mental disorders. The dosage of medication is individualized for each patient, since people may vary a great deal in the amount of drug needed to reduce symptoms without producing troublesome side effects. The large majority of people with schizophrenia show substantial improvement when treated with antipsychotic drugs. Some patients, however, are not helped very much by the medications and a few do not seem to need them. No frames is difficult to predict which patients will fall into these two groups and to distinguish them from the large majority of patients who do benefit from treatment with antipsychotic drugs. A number of new ntipsychotic drugs (the so-called â€Å"atypical antipsychotics†) have been introduced since 1990. The first of these, clozapine (Clozaril), has been shown to be more effective than other antipsychotics, although the possibility of severe side effects – in particular, a condition called agranulocytosis (loss of the white blood cells that fight infection) â€⠀ requires that patients be monitored with blood tests every one or two weeks. Even newer antipsychotic drugs, such as risperidone (Risperdal) and olanzapine (Zyprexa), are safer than the older drugs or clozapine, and they also may be better tolerated. They may or may not treat the illness as well as clozapine, however. Several additional antipsychotics are currently under development. Antipsychotic drugs are often very effective in treating certain symptoms of schizophrenia, particularly hallucinations and delusions; unfortunately, the drugs may not be as helpful with other symptoms, such as reduced motivation and emotional expressiveness. Indeed, the older antipsychotics (which also went by the name of â€Å"neuroleptics†), medicines like haloperidol (Haldol) or chlorpromazine (Thorazine), may even produce side effects that resemble the more difficult to treat symptoms. Often, lowering the dose or switching to a different medicine may reduce these side effects; the newer medicines, including olanzapine (Zyprexa), quetiapine (Seroquel), and risperidone (Risperdal), appear less likely to have this problem. Patients and families sometimes become worried about the antipsychotic medications used to treat schizophrenia. In addition to concern about side effects, they may worry that such drugs could lead to addiction. However, antipsychotic medications do not produce a â€Å"high† (euphoria) or addictive behavior in people who take them. Another misconception about antipsychotic drugs is that they act as a kind of mind control, or a â€Å"chemical straitjacket. † Antipsychotic drugs used at the proper dosage does not â€Å"knock out† people or take away their free will. While these medications can be sedating, and while this effect can be useful when treatment is initiated particularly if an individual is quite agitated, the utility of the drugs is not due to sedation but to their ability to diminish the hallucinations, agitation, confusion, and delusions of a psychotic episode. Thus, antipsychotic medications should eventually help an individual with schizophrenia to deal with the world more rationally. Treatment of schizophrenia depends upon a life-long regimen of both drug and psychosocial, support therapies. While the medication helps control the psychosis associated with schizophrenia (e. g. , the delusions and hallucinations), it cannot help the person find a job, learn to be effective in social relationships, increase the individual’s coping skills, and help them learn to communicate and work well with others. Poverty, homelessness, and unemployment are often associated with this disorder, but they don’t have to be. If the individual finds appropriate treatment and sticks with it, a person with schizophrenia can lead a happy and successful life. But the initial recovery from the first symptoms of schizophrenia can be an extremely lonely experience. Individuals coping with the onset of schizophrenia for the first time in their lives require all the support that their families, friends, and communities can provide. ———————– 1 How to cite The History of Schizophrenia, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Strategic Management of Woolworths Limited Free-Sample-Myassignment

Question: Identify a Corporation with Product or Service Portfolios that Span Multiple Business Units. Answer: Introduction Every business encompasses some risks like external and internal factors that can affect any organisation severely. To avoid maximum risks, a company should incorporate strategic management in its business that helps it in finding, analysing and determining the best possible opportunities in the market (Davies and Ellison, 2003). It depicts and controls the macro and micro environment of the company consistently that affects an organisation positively as well as negatively. In this report, we are analysing the strategic business management of Woolworths Limited which is one of the largest companies in Australia. The company deals in many segments and expanded its stores in New Zealand and Africa (Woolworths Group, 2016). In this study, we will be discussing various other business units of the company with its product and service portfolios. Along with this, revenue centre of business units and external environment of the company will be detailed. Lastly, for improvising its market condition, suggestions will be given to illustrate its market opportunities profoundly. Exploration of Corporation Corporation is any unit or organisation that works or engaged in some productive activity to achieve a definite goal and objective. It is formed with group of people or entities that helps in assembling the resources for the success of the organisation (Lamb, et al. 2011). Woolworths is one of the top positioned and largest companies of Australia in supermarket and grocery retailer industry. Its headquarter is in New South Wales, Australia established in 1924 and has captured the New Zealand and African market conveniently (Kotler, et al., 2015). Its largest segment is food and retailing department in Australia that generates the highest revenue among its other units. Every business has a unique corporate identity due to different logo, slogan, massage, vision or aim that differentiates its image from its other competitors. Corporate identity is essential to ensure the customers remembrance for a fixed identified product or brand (Janet, et. al., 2015). Along with this, it ensures the goodwill of the company all around the world in front of its competitors. Besides that, Woolworths gives multi-option retailing choices to its customers and committed to provide excellent services in low prices and high quality. It has a single logo for all of its stores in Australia (Woolworths Group, 2016). It operates online and offline services in the Australian market with profound knowledge of local customers requirements. The company has a vision ' to deliver to customers the right shopping experience each and every time'. The company also believes in customisation of the products to reach its targeted audience and possess various its own brands like Select, E ssential, Macro (Woolworths Group, 2016). However, the company covers all age group products, but focuses to gives better options for high income earners and working class families. Product portfolio is the options or diversified product lines of the organisation which are offered of their customers (Baack, et al. 2013). In addition to this, services portfolio is the classification and collection of financial or non-financial services involving product sales delivered to its respective consumer (Knox, 2015). Woolworths has the largest geographical coverage in Australia and offers enormous and different product and services to its customers (Woolworths Group, 2016). It deals in major brands like Woolworths/Safeway Supermarket, Big W, Dan Murphy's, Dick Smith Electronics, BWS, Smith Powerhouse and Tandy (Woolworths Group, 2016). Mainly, Woolworths has 7 department divisions and offers its product/service in Supermarkets, food retailing, petrol, liquor, general merchandise, home improvement and hotel and gambling. Investigation on Business Units Strategic Business Units (SBU's) are the diversified businesses owned by the same organisation delivering various other products and services in the market. SBU's are the entities which are operated separately financially as well as functionally from the group of the company (Baack, et al. 2013). Strategic Business Units have its own share of profits and losses and has own different brand for its products sale. Market condition highly affects the strategic business units of a company but administered by the associated management by adopting the changes and analysing the threats rightly. These Units has their own vision, mission and set of objects. They are independent in nature so that businesses can be carried out with controlled efficiently and flexibly administered too (Knox, 2015). Identification of business unit Woolworths has various business diversifications and deals in various products. In supermarkets and food retailing sector, Woolworths, Countdown, Food for less, Flemings are some popular stores of Woolworths Group (Woolworths Group, 2016). Furthermore, separate business unit for petrol is Caltex Woolworths, in liquor BWS and Dan Murphy's, Big W in general merchandise and Masters in home improvement along with ALH Group in hotels and gambling business. Thus, the company holds the majority market sectors in Australia and deals in pretty much all goods and hospitality services from home furnishing to entertainment business (Woolworths Group, 2016). For now, the present report is focused on the grocery and food retailing sector categorised as Supermarket. Product Line and service Line Product line is the range of products that are categories in same manner such as same price range, aforesaid utility products, identical target audience, related or complementary products (Armstrong, et al., 2014). Product line helps a company to differentiate its product and to ensure the wide range of options for their customers. In case of Woolworths, product ranges from fresh food items, fruits and vegetables to ready-to-make food items with recipes, packaged food from its own brand as well as other local brands (Knox, 2015). Apart from this, the company also offers stationary items, liquor, magazines and daily products/general merchandise in its Supermarket stores. However, in case of service line it is associated with the benefits and information sharing services comprised with or without product. The company offers services like insurance, hospitality and gaming along with home furnishing. In case of supermarket the company has limited product line including loyalty schemes su ch as credit card and rewards for customers and frequent shoppers club (Kenny, 2012). The company also provides online services with home delivery facility. Business Unit Revenue Centre Revenue centres of business are the stores that monitor and analyses all the financial losses and profits of the company. In addition they are the main financial data stores that keep on watch over supply chain management and operational management simultaneously (Armstrong, et al., 2014). In Woolworths, the companies supermarket and retail sector is the core business and all revenues are generated from this business unit. Further, it is responsible for reporting all the cost allocation and recording of other profit earning business units data collection. This centre is the main financial source centre of the company that is responsible for the direct sale of products and services to the customers or third party (Armstrong, et al., 2014). As a financial highlights company has a sale of $58 B all over the year 2016 which 1.2% from the 2005. Australian food and petrol sales are recorded at $39,410m with endeavour drink group at $7,589m (Google Finance, 2017). The earning before interest and taxes are $1,760m which is 40.8% less from 2015. Thus, the result shows the continuous declining in the sales and profits of the company in Australian markets (Woolworths Group, 2016). External Environment Analysis (PESTEL Analysis) Macro environment analysis is very significant for any business as it outlines the external factors that highly influence the growth of the company. These factors can not be controlled by the company but adoption and alteration according to the competition can ensure a business growth (Lancaster and Massingham, 2010). These factors also help the company in diversify their products with their competitors while following the rules and being unique with the concept. Macro environment embraces six basic factors called as PESTEL acronym includes Political, Economical, Social, Cultural, Environmental and Legal. This analysis represents challenges related the Australian retailing and grocery markets as follows: First, Political and Legal factors- As the Australian government has a direct influence in the retailing and supermarket industry, it monitors and controls the legislation and administration of supermarket industry (Valenzuela, 2013). Laws associated with Australian competition and consumer commission (ACCC), legislating trading hours, commonwealth government, the foreign investment review board (FIRB) and the trade practice act (TPA) are some legislations that affects the supermarkets and make it risky for the new entries. Sometimes government interference and disturbance discourages the existing and new market players of this industry. Woolworths is a popular brand in Australia, functions fairly stable in the Australian market. However, losses of the business and risk are not significant (Knox, 2015). Second, technology- the company incorporates highly information technology in operating and administration its functions. It adopts new technologies with the help of global electronic marketing and merchandising network (Hutt and Speh, 2012.). Its supply chain and distribution system is also based on IT which enables company for cost cutting. Moreover, according to competition and cut- throat rivalry online facility of Woolworth is its USP; it ensures its customers flexibility and home delivery advantages. Third, economic factors such as at the time of depression and inflation it impacts the supermarket industry. Additionally, higher unemployment also influences the supermarket profitability (Foxall, 2014). Global financial crisis and other major financial influences are less shown in the Australian market. In fact Australian retail industry market is the only market which is more stable and continues with the same pace even at the lime of global recession. Thus, Woolworths is not influenced by the global segment of the economic crisis but domestic market can influence it slightly (Kenny, 2012). Forth, Social and cultural factors- in dense competitive and highly replaceable market condition, the company has adopted the trend with significant profitability. People are shifting towards healthy and fresh food plus, people are choosing more focused healthy lifestyle. The company has adopted same policies in its supermarket offering wide range of fresh and healthy products to its customers (Knox, 2015). Moreover, customers are seeking for good marketing schemes and affordability of the products, which is also being initiated by the company as loyalty scheme and various price ranges for single product according to quality respectively. Fifth, environmental factor- the company is already emphasised to use Eco-friendly products as well as involved in activities to reduce the environmental harm. It also prioritises the slumping in the wastage of natural resources such as water and coal. Further, it aims in dwindling the carbon footprints of the company. Woolworths recycles and reuse its resources to minimise the waste and creates recyclable products for its customers (Knox, 2015). The company incorporates the corporate social responsibility for the better future of next generation. Substantial Competitive Advantage and its Factors Substantial competitive advantage is referred to the unique or diversified product, approach, process or design that can not be repeated by the competitors (Richter, 2012). It helps in the survival of the company in the competitive market and from safeguards its existence from rivals. In addition, the competitive advantage is an essential part to entice customers and offer them its product in its own price to gain maximum profit (Richter, 2012). The factors that influence the substantial competitive advantage of a company are innovation in a product, information technology, managerial capacity and relation of company with its suppliers. The product innovation is very essential to grab the attention of the customer plus it reduces the competition between the products of other companies. Information technology ease and fasts the services of any company, it also provides uniqueness in the approach of the company (Proctor, 2014). Managerial capacity is the most vital element that influences the internal management for the company and appropriate response to the customers. Thus, an effective and strategic management in managerial level is very necessary to create a successful supply chain and operational flexibility. Lastly, suppliers are the core source of any products and hence, relationship with them matters for a companys longevity. Supplier with good profits and benefits supplies the good quality of material and supports the organisation even in the worst market conditions (Paley, 1999). Woolworth has a competitive advantage over its competitors in low price ranges offend by the company. The company aims to establish long term relationship with customers and provides high quality of fresh and healthy products in a single roof. To make the experience unique and different it uses many facilities such as loyalty points and credit card system. Woolworths has a very renowned name in the supermarket sectors of Australia which is itself creates competitive advantage for the company (Woolworths Group, 2016). Strategic Direction and Recommendations Strategic direction is matching and following the portfolio of the company by the strategic goals of the company (Bowersox, 2004). The company customises and modifies its functioning to match the portfolio with its strategic goals and objectives. It ensures the organisation that they are operating and function in the market as per their standards and they are persistently achieving their set aim in a reasonable time effectively (Paley, 2006). As a suggestion for future, the company should restructure its price strategy. Woolworths prices as per the standard are higher in Australia than other supermarkets. The main reason is the target market of the company that is higher earning income people and working class people only. They are maintaining the high price margin in the market that kept the price of the products expensive (Harrison and St. John, 2009). In the case of qualitative goods, they are also offering the same and homogeneous goods as other supermarkets are offering. As a long term survival, the company is failing in front of other global competitors due to higher prices and same goods (Kroenke, et al., 2013). Thus, the company is recommended to change its price strategy for longevity of the company. The prices should also be based on the competitors prices to attract wide range of customers. It has very good goodwill and sterling market share but it would not be stable for the long term. Apart from this, company should also search and approach for other major markets. It will help them to be in competition with global markets (Fresh perspectives, 2006). More ventures, acquisition, mergers and franchising are required to expand the core business of the company in new geographical reason. Moreover, the company should also keep a watch on cultural change and its adoption according to the situation. Conclusion In the end the above discussion shows the strategic aspects of Woolworths. The company is using low price strategy and aimed to provide products services for higher income earned section. The company offers wide range of products and deals in various strategic business units. The company is using Eco-friendly products and practice some activities to save natural resources of earth. Due to continuous external pressure and intense competition the company is advised to revise its price and expansion strategies. References Armstrong, G. et al. 2014. Principles of Marketing. Pearson Australia. Baack, D. W., et al. 2013. International Marketing. SAGE. Bowersox, 2004. Strategic Marketing Channel Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Davies, B., and Ellison, L. 2003. 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